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A bull that was brown, Three goldspinks, A goose that was grey, Three plovers, A pippin go aye; Wha learns my carol and carries it away? Stephen 's Day, as being the feast day of St. Twelfth Night is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "the evening of the fifth of January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany, formerly the last day of the Christmas festivities and observed as a time of merrymaking.
It was also known in SomersetDorsetshireand elsewhere in England. The kinds of gifts vary in a number of the versions, some of them becoming alliterative tongue-twisters. There is evidence pointing to the North of England, specifically the area around Newcastle upon Tyneas the origin of the A christmas carol text response.
Husk, in the excerpt quoted below, stated that the carol was "found on broadsides A christmas carol text response at Newcastle at various periods during the last hundred and fifty years", i.
In addition, many of the nineteenth century citations come from the Newcastle area. On one of these sheets, nearly a century old, it is entitled "An Old English Carol," but it can scarcely be said to fall within that description of composition, being rather fitted for use in playing the game of "Forfeits," to which purpose it was commonly applied in the metropolis upwards of forty years since.
The practice was for one person in the company to recite the first three lines; a second, the four following; and so on; the person who failed in repeating her portion correctly being subjected to some trifling forfeit. Thomas Hughesin a short story published indescribed a fictional game of Forfeits involving the song: So the party sat down round Mabel on benches brought out from under the table, and Mabel began, -- The first day of Christmas my true love sent to me a partridge and a pear-tree; The second day of Christmas my true love sent to me two turtle-doves, a partridge, and a pear-tree; The third day of Christmas my true love sent to me three fat hens, two turtle-doves, a partridge, and a pear-tree; The fourth day of Christmas my true love sent to me four ducks quacking, three fat hens, two turtle-doves, a partridge, and a pear-tree; The fifth day of Christmas my true love sent to me five hares running, four ducks quacking, three fat hens, two turtle-doves, a partridge, and a pear-tree.
Each day was taken up and repeated all round; and for every breakdown except by little Maggie, who struggled with desperately earnest round eyes to follow the rest correctly, but with very comical resultsthe player who made the slip was duly noted down by Mabel for a forfeit.
Barnesstated that the last verse "is to be said in one breath". Lady Gomme wrote in The party was usually a mixed gathering of juveniles and adults, mostly relatives, and before supper — that is, before eating mince pies and twelfth cake — this game and the cushion dance were played, and the forfeits consequent upon them always cried.
The company were all seated round the room. The leader of the game commenced by saying the first line. This was continued until the lines for the "twelve days" were said by every player. For every mistake a forfeit — a small article belonging to the person — had to be given up.
These forfeits were afterwards "cried" in the usual way, and were not returned to the owner until they had been redeemed by the penalty inflicted being performed. Meanings of the gifts[ edit ] Illustration of "five gold rings", from the first known publication of "The Twelve Days of Christmas" According to The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes, "Suggestions have been made that the gifts have significance, as representing the food or sport for each month of the year.
Importance [certainly has] long been attached to the Twelve Days, when, for instance, the weather on each day was carefully observed to see what it would be in the corresponding month of the coming year.
Nevertheless, whatever the ultimate origin of the chant, it seems probable [that] the lines that survive today both in England and France are merely an irreligious travesty. An anonymous "antiquarian", writing inspeculated that "pear-tree" is a corruption of French perdrix partridgeand "colley" a corruption of French collet ruff, hence "we at once have a bird with a ruff, i.
Sharp also suggests the adjective "French" in "three French hens", probably simply means "foreign". Baring-Gould suggests that the presents sent on the first seven days were all birds—the "five gold rings" were not actually gold rings, but refer to the five golden rings of the ringed pheasant.
McKellar, published an article, "How to Decode the Twelve Days of Christmas" in which he suggested that "The Twelve Days of Christmas" lyrics were intended as a catechism song to help young Catholics learn their faith, at a time when practising Catholicism was criminalised in England until Hal Stockert wrote an article subsequently posted on-line in in which he suggested a similar possible use of the twelve gifts as part of a catechism.
English composer Frederic Austin fitted the words to a traditional melody, to which he added his own two-bar motif for "Five gold rings". The initial "on" at the beginning of each verse. The use of "calling birds", rather than "colly birds", on the fourth day.
The ordering of the final four verses. The time signature of this song is not constant, unlike most popular music.
This irregular meter perhaps reflects the song's folk origin. The successive bars of three for the gifts surrounded by bars of four give the song its hallmark "hurried" quality. Flourish on the words "Five Gold Rings" in the final verse of Austin's arrangement of "The Twelve Days of Christmas" The second to fourth verses' melody is different from that of the fifth to twelfth verses.
Before the fifth verse when "five gold en rings" is first sungthe melody, using solfegeis "sol re mi fa re" for the fourth to second items, and this same melody is thereafter sung for the twelfth to sixth items. However, the melody for "four colly birds, three French hens, two turtle doves" changes from this point, differing from the way these lines were sung in the opening four verses.
In the final verse, Austin inserted a flourish on the words "Five Gold Rings". This has not been copied by later versions, which simply repeat the melody from the earlier verses. Earlier versions[ edit ] In the 19th century, most sources for the lyrics do not include music, and those that do often include music different from what has become the standard melody.A Christmas carol text response essay great structure to help you write your essay.
Until very recently, this was my favorite version of A Christmas Carol. I've watched quite a few and they have always been too badly animated, or too badly musical, or too Jim Carrey for my taste. A Christmas Carol Essay.
A Christmas Carol – Extended Response Questions STAVE THREE 1. Scrooge is now totally open to the spirits; to what he might learn, and taking ownership of the situation. Mar 11, · A Christmas Carol - Text Response 'Of all the spirits who haunt Scrooge, the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come is the most influential.' Do you agree?
Now I have two questions in particular: 1. My contention is: The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come IS influential, although the Ghost of Christmas Past and Present are AS influential. Join us August in NYC! Frontispiece for the edition of Dickens’ A Christmas Carol, with art by George Alfred Williams | published by The Platt & Peck Co (New York) Charles Dickens is one of my favorite authors of all time, and although A Christmas Carol is far from my favorite of.
A short summary of Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol. This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of A Christmas Carol.