Many women in Bangladesh are forced to deal with harassment and un-warranted attention, just because they are women.
Disclaimer Curbing prescription opioid dependency An epidemic of overdoses and deaths from opioids is fuelled by increased prescribing and sales in North America. Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; Beforethe prescription of opioid painkillers in the USA was limited to people with pain from advanced cancer, severe injuries or after major surgery.
That restraint was founded on the fear that patients might become addicted and the bitter experience of two opioid epidemics: Opioids are a class of drug used to reduce pain.
They include heroin, as well as prescription pain relievers, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, methadone and morphine. Ina study based on 38 patients suggested that these powerful prescription drugs could be used safely with minimal rates of addiction for chronic pain, and a few pain specialists began advocating for broader use of them in this way, says Kolodny, who is now the director of nongovernmental organization Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing and a researcher at Brandeis University in Massachusetts.
This movement to increase opioid prescribing was catalysed in the s by patient and professional groups that received funding from pharmaceutical companies, he says. Since then, the USA has been facing a growing epidemic of opioid dependency, including a rise in heroin use and record high levels of opioid overdose deaths.
From tomore than people died from overdoses related to prescription opioids and inmore than million opioid prescriptions were written in the USA, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDCmore than enough for the entire population of million people.
Some of these prescriptions were for palliative care or acute pain, but many more were for patients with chronic non-cancer pain, such as backache, headaches and fibromyalgia. Patients like Dan Schoepf, a self-employed contractor, who was first prescribed oxycodone for a severe back injury by a pain physician in Long Beach, California in As time wore on he needed ever larger doses to relieve the pain because of increasing tolerance.
The pain stopped and he received addiction treatment that got him off the opioids for good. The number of patients with chronic pain prescribed opioids for long periods of time has increased in other high-income countries as well, including Australia and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
But it is mainly the USA and Canada that are seeing epidemics of dependency and a large toll of overdose deaths.
Health-care providers underestimate the risk of addiction of opioids and they overestimate the benefits, says Houry, a former emergency room physician. Prescription opioids are taken in the form of pills. Volkov In Canada, prescription opioid overdose deaths increased fivefold in the province of Ontario between and and about Canadians died from this cause in alone.
In the USA, the CDC recently launched a programme that aims to improve the performance of underused prescription drug monitoring programmes. Under these programmes, state-run electronic databases are used by doctors and sometimes nurses to track the prescribing and dispensing of controlled prescription drugs to patients so that suspected abuse can be identified.
Not all prescription drug monitoring programmes let physicians see what other prescriptions patients are receiving in real-time.
Where such programmes exist, they are not used enough, Fischer adds. Medical examiners and coroners can also use prescription drug monitoring programmes to find out which doctors may have prescribed opioids recently to a patient. Last year, CDC released guidelines recommending evidence-based pain management techniques, such as physical therapy; and non-opioid medications, such as anti-inflammatories, as first-line treatment for chronic pain.
If prescribing opioids, it recommended that physicians ensure that patients are fully aware of the risks, start them at the lowest possible effective dose and avoid doses above a certain level.
CDC is also working with medical schools and nursing colleges to ensure that students are taught safe opioid prescription and pain management.The World Bank Group works in every major area of development. We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face.
This paper examines the degree of aid dependency of Bangladesh economy. The aid scenario of the country has been changing during the last two decades not only in terms of sources and volume of aid. Contact us. Tel: Town Hall Station Road Clacton-on-Sea Essex, CO15 1SE. Curbing prescription opioid dependency An epidemic of overdoses and deaths from opioids is fuelled by increased prescribing and sales in North America.
World Statistics: international statistics, country population, economic and social data provided by International Organisations. ABSTRACT. Sexual harassment is a gender discrimination and human rights violation of women.
Many women in Bangladesh are forced to deal with harassment and .