You have really illustrated their differences.
References and Further Reading 1. Ancient Ethics and Modern Morality There are at least two main criteria that each moral theory must fulfil: However, many traditional moral theories are unable to meet the second criterion and simply fall short of the high demands of applied ethics to solve the complex moral problems of our times.
Why is this the case? The main point is that the traditional moral theories are not sufficiently well equipped to deal with completely new problems such as issues concerning nuclear power, gene technology, and cloning and so forth. Therefore, there is constant interest in updating and enhancing a particular moral theory in order to make it compatible with the latest demands.
This is a difficult and often very complex process. But, why is this the case? The challenging question is, according to Annas Even if one acknowledges the fact that happiness means a satisfactory and well-lived life according to the ethical virtues and not only a happy moment or so, it still does not sound like morality.
Ancient ethics is about living a good and virtuous life according to the ethical virtues, that is, to become a virtuous person, while the modern notion of morality is primarily focused on the interests of other people and the idea of deontological constraints. Historically speaking, from a different perspective, there is no evidence which term is most legitimate.
When Aristotle analyses the good life in the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics, he therefore focuses on the central topic of good and bad character traits that is virtues and vices. In this original sense, ethics means an analysis about the character or character traits.
The term moralis rather refers to the Greek ethos whose primary meaning is habits and customs. If the term morality refers to mores, then the term morality means the totality of all habits and customs of a given community. The term moralis became a terminus technicus in the Latin-shaped philosophy, which covers the present meaning of the term.
Morality, however, is not simply a matter of mere convention but the latter often conflicts with morality for example, an immoral conventionhence, it seems inappropriate to shorten the term in this way Steinfath At present, there are, at least, four different possibilities to distinguish between ethics and morality: Ethics and morality as distinct spheres: The equation of ethics and morality for example Peter Singer.
Morality as a special field in the ethical realm: Ethics is the generic term for ethical and moral issues in the above-mentioned sense. Morality is a special part of ethics for example, Bernard Williams.
Morality as the object of ethics: Ethics is the philosophical theory of morality which is the systematic analysis of moral norms and values standard reading.
The upshot is that it is always important to ask how the terms ethics and morality are used and how one uses them for oneself.
It is certain that one makes a textual and not only a conceptual differentiation by claiming that the terms differ.
Ancient Ethics It is impossible to give a complete depiction of the rich history of ethical reasoning and decision-making in Antiquity here, therefore the focus of this section concerns the main lines of ethical reasoning of the most important philosophical schools in the classic and Hellenistic period.
This rather simplified overview is nonetheless sufficient for our purposes. One can roughly distinguish the classic and Hellenistic periods into four different but closely connected parts. All the philosophical schools — being at odds with each other — are still united by the fact that they are deeply concerned with the most important ethical questions of how to live a good life and how to achieve happiness.
Their responses to these vital questions are, of course, diverse. The Most Prominent Philosophical Schools in Ancient Greece The following brief depiction focuses on the basic ethical assumptions of the philosophical schools of the Cynics and Cyrenaics, the peripatetic school, the Epicureans, and the Stoics.
Plato himself did not provide any systematic ethics comparable to the other main ancient schools either, even though one can certainly reconstruct — at least to some extent — his ethical viewpoint in the dialogue Politeia.
In addition, most ethical works of the classic and Hellenistic periods are lost in the dark of history; what remains is a collection of fragments, phrases, and parts of letters of various important philosophers and commentators standing in the tradition of particular schools at that time.
Many rival views on ethics are mediated through the works of Plato and Aristotle, in which they criticize their opponents. In addition, some of these rudiments and testimonials were also mediated by famous writers and politicians such as Xenophon fifth and fourth century BC and the important historian of philosophy Diogenes Laertios third century AD.
Aristotle, however, is the only ancient philosopher whose two substantial and complete ethical contributions, that is, the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics — leaving aside the Magna Moralia of which the authorship is unclear — have survived, even though all of his dialogues including those that are concerned with ethics and ethical issues are also lost.
The Cynics and the Cyrenaics — The Extremes The founder of the school of the Cynics, Antisthenes of Athens, taught that virtue in terms of practical wisdom is a good and also sufficient for eudaimonia, that is, happiness.Modern Morality and Ancient Ethics.
It is commonly supposed that there is a vital difference between ancient ethics and modern morality. For example, there appears to be a vital difference between virtue ethics and the modern moralities of deontological ethics .
Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Those who are not students of philosophy, words like utilitarianism and Kantianism may sound alien, but for those who try to tackle questions of ethics and wisdom, these two represent important viewpoints.
Home» Difference Between Kantianism and Utilitarianism. The theory says that people choose . By accepting ethical theory, this can act as a guideline for a human resource (HR) manager to identify and handle the issues of self-interest. DeGeorge () defines utilitarianism as an act of moral significance established by its involvement to create the most amount of good for the most number of people.
Utilitarianism judges the moral value of an action based on its outcome (or expected outcome, for a hypothetical case). Kant's ethical theory bases all moral judgment on the nature of the action; the consequences are entirely irrelevant. Actually, it's a bit of an oversimplification to talk about Kant's ethical theory at all.
Kantianism - Strength: It's in agreement with much common sense morality. Weakness: You must follow rules, even if it would lead to bad consequences (or it doesn't give .
Ethics is the conscious reflection on our moral beliefs targeting to improve, extend or refine those beliefs in some way. Kantian moral and Utilitarianism theories attempt to respond to the ethical nature of human beings. Immanuel Kant’s deontological ethical theory evaluates if actions are moral based on the person’s will or intention of acting.