The Other Civil War A sheriff in the Hudson River Valley near Albany, New York, about to go into the hills in the fall of to collect back rents from tenants on the enormous Rensselaer estate, was handed a letter: The tenants now assume the right of doing to their landlord as he has for a long time done with them, viz:
Introduction The website is a means of rapidly locating information on the economic costs of soil erosion. Soil erosion is a form of soil degradation on agricultural land. It is the relatively rapid removal of topsoil by rain or wind. Under natural conditions - in climates where agriculture can be practiced - the soil is protected by vegetation and the rate of soil loss by erosion is very low.
On cultivated land the soil is exposed to rain and wind during part of the year and can easily be washed or blown away.
The rate of erosion can increase to more than a thousandfold compared to forest e. The dark coloured upper layer of soil, rich in humus termed A1-horizonin temperate climates has favourable properties for plant growth, such as good soil structure and aeration, and timely providing the plant with water and nutrients.
Topsoil removal, therefore, leads to a decline in soil productivity. This is an irreversible process, as topsoil forms very slowly.
For tropical soils see: The soil material that is lost through erosion, is deposited elsewhere, in places where it is not wanted like roads, streets, people's houses, drainage ways, rivers, dams and reservoirs. It can lead to pollution of watercourses and reservoirs with agrochemicals herbicides, pesticides adsorbed on soil particles.
Heavy rains can cause muddy flooding. The effects of soil erosion on farmers' fields are called onsite effects, the effects outside agriculture offsite effects. The most important onsite effect, the loss of soil productivity, is a long term process seen from the farmers' point of view. The mud that is deposited in built-up areas during heavy rainfall must be cleared away directly after the event, and is therefore a short term effect.
Govers drew attention to the net downslope displacement of soil material on sloping cultivated land as a direct effect of tillage. This he called 'tillage erosion'. Tillage erosion does not cause offsite damage. The soil that is displaced by tillage remains on the tilled field.
Another cause of downslope movement of soil and earth material is 'mass wasting' which takes place under the influence of gravity alone soil creep, frost creep, solifluction, mudflow, slumping, landslides. The rapid forms of mass wasting mudflows, landslides, rockfalls can cause extensive damage with loss of lives.
The processes of mass wasting will not be discussed in this website.
For more info go to: Soil erosion by rain occurs when more rain falls than the soil can absorb, either by exceeding the infiltration capacity or the storage capacity of the soil. The excess water runs downslope as overland flow.
The erosion can take on several forms, such as splash erosion, rill erosion, interrill erosion, ephemeral gully erosion or gully erosion. Sheet erosion, though often mentioned, is questionable. Rills and ephemeral gullies can be smoothed filled by normal tillage. However, soil loss by rill erosion and ephemeral gully erosion is not made undone by tillage.
The loss is merely evenly divided averaged across the field by tillage and contributes to a gradual lowering of topsoil depth. Real gullies are too deep to be removed by normal tillage. Soil erosion control Can soil erosion be stopped, or at least reduced to an acceptable level soil loss tolerance or T-value?
Already in the 's several methods, techniques and practices were devised for soil erosion control, mostly in the USA, such as: Later, starting aroundvarious forms of conservation tillage were introduced and increasingly used minimum tillage, zero tillage, no till, direct drill, reduced tillage, strip till, mulch till, non-inverting tillage.
For descriptions see e. Erosion Control and Conservation Planning.The Dark Enlightenment – Part 1 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 2 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 3 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4a The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4b The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4c The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4d The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4e The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4f(inal) Part 1: Neo-reactionaries head for the exit.
Impacts of Overgrazing: Land Degradation, Soil Erosion and Loss of useful species! Livestock wealth plays a crucial role in the rural life of our country. India leads in livestock population in the world. The huge population of livestock needs to be fed and the grazing lands or pasture areas are not.
Land (ISSN X) is an international and crossdisciplinary peer-reviewed open access journal of land use/land change, land management, land system science and landscape, etc, published quarterly online by MDPI.
Land is affiliated to International Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE) and members receive a discount on the article processing charge. The First Founding Moment: Genesis 11 Genesis , it is widely agreed, consists of two cosmogonies (cc.1and ).
The first (the familiar seven-day creation account) is also an introduction, providing a lens for viewing the. Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Essay No.
Pollution. The word pollution has been derived from the Latin word pollution, which means to make dirty. Pollution is the process of making the environment land water and air dirty by adding harmful substances to it.