Fascists also pandered to antiurban feelings. The Nazis won most of their electoral support from rural areas and small towns. In Nazi propaganda the ideal German was not an urban intellectual but a simple peasant, and uprooted intellectualism was considered a threat to the… Definitions of the city and urban cultures Research on urban cultures naturally focuses on their defining institution, the city, and the lifeways, or cultural forms, that grow up within cities.
In fact, as the leader of the Roman Catholic Church, he was primarily responsible for convincing and inspiring European Christians to take up arms to reclaim the Holy Land of Jerusalem from the Muslims. This also means that he was also responsible for influencing allied European states to support the First Crusade.
He also spearheaded the Council of Piacenza at the end of this tour. There were thousands of attendees including bishops, church officials, and 30, laymen. The aggressive leadership of the emperor who came into power by overthrowing his predecessors forced Pope Gregory VII to excommunicate him from the Church in However, Pope Urban II lifted the excommunication when he became pope inthus creating a diplomatic relationship between the West and the East.
During the Council of Piacenza, the Byzantine Emperor asked the Church and the West to extend military support to defend his empire from the invading Muslim Seljuk Turks. As a backgrounder, the Seljuk Turks had been launching a series of raids and invasions in the Byzantine Empire since the middle of the 11th century.
They successfully took control of Anatolia from the Byzantine after winning the Battle of Manziker in During the Council of Piacenza, the pope asked those present in the synod to lend aid to the Byzantine Empire. This marked the beginning of the First Crusade.
This call to arms involved appealing to the religiosity of his audience. Nevertheless, there are some versions written down a bit later. For example, according to the chronicles written by priest Fulcher of Chartres from to aroundPope Urban II convinced Europeans to participate in the Crusades through a promise of remission of sins.
Translated excerpt from the chronicles of Fulcher reads: This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested. O what a disgrace if such a despised and base race, which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of omnipotent God and is made glorious with the name of Christ.
The pope appealed to the Europeans by calling the military expedition to the East as the will of the divine.
To entice his audience further, the pope also enumerated the gruesome atrocities committed by the Muslims against Christians and Christianity. They ruin the altars with filth and defilement.
They circumcise Christians and smear the blood from the circumcision over the altars or throw it into the baptismal fonts. They are pleased to kill others by cutting open their bellies, extracting the end of their intestines, and tying it to a stake. Then, with flogging, they drive their victims around the stake until, when their viscera have spilled out, they fall dead on the ground.
Most would argue that the pope and the Church were naturally accountable for reclaiming Jerusalem and the rest of the Levant. Most of the narratives in the Bible took place in the Levant.
It was also the birthplace of Jesus Christ and Christianity. Nonetheless, European Christians have regarded the region as their spiritual home.Urban managers could influence the strength and type of benefits through outreach efforts focused on increasing awareness around different functions of urban gardens, including holding gardening classes, and also by offering incentives that encourage and enable disparate urban dwellers to participate in gardening that is tailored to their needs.
Nov 02, · The aim was therefore to explore current gender roles, how these are reproduced and maintained and influence men's and women's life circumstances. This was explored among female informants living in urban Pakistan, as part of a larger project on .
The role of urban design There is no single definition of urban design. It is not for Government to dictate what is good urban design.5 Urban design as an activity seemingly has a very loose definition, and means different things to different people. While some consider it as.
The role of Pope Urban II in the First Crusade was essential and critical. In fact, as the leader of the Roman Catholic Church, he was primarily responsible for convincing and inspiring European Christians to take up arms to reclaim the Holy Land of Jerusalem from the Muslims.
The labels for the types of urban cultures denote the predominant cultural role played by cities in this urban culture—thus, “ritual city” or “administrative city.” Obviously, cities in any society combine some amount of ritual role with administrative functions. The Role and Influence of Environmental and Cultural Factors on the Academic Performance of African American Males the X-Men, and the Ladies: Playing with power and identity in an urban primary school.
Teachers College Record, 96(2 The Trouble with Black Boys:: The Role and Influence of Environmental and Cultural Factors on the Academic.